The Case-Zablocki Act of 1972 requires the President to notify the Senate within 60 days of an executive agreement. The president`s powers to conclude such agreements have not been restricted. The reporting requirement allowed Congress to vote in favor of repealing an executive agreement or to refuse funding for its implementation.   “New York`s action in this matter essentially boils down to a rejection of part of the policy that underlies this nation`s recognition of Soviet Russia. Our constitutional system does not recognize such power as a state. To allow it, it would be to sanction a dangerous invasion of federal authority. Indeed, “it would jeopardize friendly relations between governments and irritate the peace of nations.” It would tend to upset the balance of our external relations, which the political services of our national government have tried to establish zealously. . In the United States, executive agreements are binding at the international level when negotiated and concluded under the authority of the President on foreign policy, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, or from a previous congressional record. For example, the President, as Commander-in-Chief, negotiates and concludes Armed Forces Agreements (SOFAs) that govern the treatment and disposition of U.S. forces deployed in other nations. However, the President cannot unilaterally enter into executive agreements on matters that are not in his constitutional jurisdiction. In such cases, an agreement should take the form of an agreement between Congress and the executive branch or a contract with the Council and the approval of the Senate.  What kind of commitment does the president impose on the United States when he enters into an executive agreement? It is clear that it can impose international obligations with potentially serious consequences, and it is equally clear that these obligations can be extended over a long period of time.488 The nature of national obligations imposed by executive agreements is not so obvious.
Do contracts and executive agreements have the same impact on domestic policy?489 contracts pre-exist state law by applying the supremacy clause. While agreements made under the authorization or contractual commitment of Congress also stem from the preventive force of the supremacy clause, this textual basis for the pre-emption period is probably absent for executive agreements based exclusively on the president`s constitutional powers.